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The routes taken by the first settlers of America from other continents are not fully established , nor the time nor motives that impelled them to make a trip full of risks and discomforts. Many anthopoligt are still working on it . Click! on the image to open the link.

The traditionally accepted and with the largest archaeological support is the one across the Prairies of Beringia and now known as Theory of Late Poblamiento. By then, 11500 years ago, there was a land bridge between Asia and America ice-free between two massive frozen. This north of Alaska corridor ended in the west central section of North America, and from this point travelers scattered to the south . Most likely there were more than one migratory movement of small groups while the passage was open. There are archaeological remains of these people all throughout America and are identified as the people of Clovis. New findings of older settlements, sure previous to the Clovis are suspected came from earlier migrations since the walking mobilization south across the continent represents a longer period of time than already estimated .

In general all theories present evidence on different tipes that support them with archaeological finds of bones, utensils, habits and behaviors rituals, language and perhaps the most important are the comparative blood and genetic studies of the direct descendants of the inhabitants of America before the arrival of Europeans . The most recent studies have separate theories of peopling of America in Late like Alex Hrdlicka and Early as some of the others mentioned below.

 

The theory related to the Beringia Prairie by Alex Hrdlicka was postulated in 1937. It is one of the most widely accepted theory by the scientific community and is based on the archeological findings mainly of the Clovis Culture. It is assumed that about 14,000 years ago there was a land passage between Asia and America through the North Pole known as Beringia Pass. This passage between mountain ranges was free of ice and flowed through the central west of North America. For a more detailed presentation activate the link

The Theory of the Passage by the Aleutians of Knut Fladmark was initially proposed in 1960. This theory has not had the proper support with archaeological findings, so up to now it is based on assumptions based on the knowledge of ancient man. Of the human migrations that left Africa and arrived to Asia, when they met the Pacific Ocean, they divided, one populated to Australia, another Polynesia and the other went north along the coast. The latter eventually continued through the Aleutian Islands until reaching the Americas.

The Antarctic Pass proposed by Mendes Correia postulates that 8,000 years ago the Earth went through a period that exposed the Antarctic coast. It was then that the people of Australia sailed the small stretches southward through the islands of Tasmania and New Zealand to Tierra Victoria in Antarctica. With a coastal navigation through the Seas of Ross, Admunsen and Bellingshausen they reached the Antarctic Peninsula and the Land of Graham. Only the Drake Strait separated them from America to reach Tierra del Fuego from where they extended in anlimited way to the north.

Paul Rivet's theory corresponds to the Navigators of Melanesia and Polynesia who came repeatedly to South America in a period of time between 14,000 and 3,000 years. They reached mainly the height of the equator and from there they could disperse northward to possibly lower California and southward to Chile and Bolivia. The tests are based mainly on anthropology and linguistics. The ethnographic similarities between these American cultures and those of New Guinea and Polynesia are of consideration such as: blowguns, liana bridges, ceramics, combs, textile procedures, phallic cases, nasal ornaments, pectoral plates, archaic numbering systems such as quipu , drums, masks, tattoos, use of jade stones embedded in the teeth, deformations of the skull and knees and finally the use of shells as a medium of exchange.

The Theory of the passage through the North Atlantic by the Vikings of Emerson Frank Greenman demonstrates its feasibility with archaeological sites in America and even European documents ; However, the penetration that these discovery navigators had in America was very limited, practically restricted to Terranova. These Viking raids date from the 10th century and later.

The African Theory is based on the findings found in Pedra Furada in Brazil (1986). The studies of the archeological Niede Guidon date the human bones found in 12000 years, which place them in a contemporary date with the Clovis culture and other challenges of up to 32,000 years. The most surprising thing is that the skulls found are of the human type Archaic Sapiens present in Africa for 130 thousand years. It is assumed that these inhabitants of America arrived in rustic boats from the northern coast of Africa.

The Solutrean solution is a proposal of Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley in 1999. The theory is based on the interpretation of the artifacts from the Clovis culture found in America which are not as similires with Northeast Asia of the time while they have many more similarities with the artifacts from the Paleolithic Solutrean culture of Europe of the Atlantic so the circumnavigation by the north Atlantic may have given and emigrants have met and merged with representatives of the Clovis culture from Asia

The nativist theory of Florentino Ameghino was launched in 1890 and had a brief life being challenged in 1908 by Alex Hrdlicka based on new evidence found. The theory postulates that the origin of man was in America, specifically in the pampas of Argentina with the emergence of Homus pampeanus from very primitive species of monkey called Prosimio primitiva. The theory was rejected because the skeletal remains found were a mixture of monkeys, cats and recent humans. The stratum analyzed belonged to the Quaternary and by that time there were no intercontinental bridges .

 

 

 

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