In the Caribbean Sea basin the ecosystems, biomes or natural environments that exist can be separated into three categories, one is the terrestrial system, other the sea or by extension the aquatic system and third the one between the two of them or the intertidal system. The terrestrial have more diverse environments witch are between the desert and the cloud forest, with some small patches of other types of ecosystems. In the sea the ecosystems are more homogeneously distributed all around the basin, and they area characterized by a high biodiversity. In general, all the natural system of the Caribbean Basin is characterized by its biodiversity, in many cases of endemic species on some local places.This biogeographic region owes its conditions to its geological and biological history since the time when its formation began about 180 million years ago
In the chain of islands formed between of Margarita, Aruba and Curacao, along with the continental lowlands of Venezuela and Colombia, in the northern South America, the average annual rainfall is low, the winds are moderate and constant all year (Alisisos Winds of Dry and Rainy Seasons) , under such conditions the prevailing environments are desert or semi desert. In the coast mountain range of Venezuela at altitudes above 4921 Feets the condensation of clouds has allowed the development of rain forests and even cloud forests. In the intertidal zone the mangrove forests are common in the island system and also well developed on the main land coast where the topography has allowed its development as in the National Park La Restinga, N.P. Laguna de Tacarigua, N.P. Morrocoy, Faunal Refugee The Olivitos, among others. Sandy beaches are extended and abundant in diversity, so they are frequently visited by tourists and vacationers. There is also present the rocky shores and particularly in the islands the coral reefs.
To the south of the Lesser Antilles the landscape is similar to that of South America, with the difference of being in much smaller scale. In those islands where the volcanoes are important, the evolution of the ecosystems over the rest of the eruptions should be able to see in the land. Going to the north it is possible to see more humid communities. The most relevant environments of this zones of the Caribbean sea area the mangroves in the intertidal zone, and underwater the coral reefs, as bright as ever.
The Greater Antilles are dominated by dry forests and some spots of rainforests, many of then with beautiful places of small river basins in the forest. The human population growth in all these islands since the time of the Spanish conquest has transform significantly their biomes, however, marine ecosystems as the coral reef, or inter marine as sandy beeches and mangroves, are in good shape. the Island of Cuba is the most important land area of the northern section of the Caribbean Basin, just north of the tropics.
The Central America coasts in the Caribbean Sea are very much different from all others zones. In the marine environment of mangroves, sandy bottoms and coral reefs have a similar presence to other Caribbean coast. In this section of the Caribbean Basin the terrestrial ecosystems contain much more moisture than other sides. The recent closure between the Atlantic and Pacific by land, besides being the corner of the tropical storms in the Caribbean have allowed the development of rainforests and tropical deciduous forest. The biodiversity of this region is legendary, is where the migration of terrestrial species began to pass 2 million years ago, from north to south and from south to north, for these lands is where more than 50% of migratory birds pass and the Mayan people coexist with nature, even now.
The ecological future of this region is uncertain, the Panama Canal has opened a route in between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans so that we can see new marine species in the Caribbean Sea with an unknown future impact . The ship traffic and human pollution as also a negative impact witch should be stopped or slowed down immediately. The rise in sea level will have have a major impact throughout the Caribbean basin which can be converted into a basin almost entirely aquatic.